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JUnit Tutorial | Testing Framework for Java

JUnit tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of unit testing in java with examples. Our junit tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals.

It is an open-source testing framework for java programmers. The java programmer can create test cases and test his/her own code.

It is one of the unit testing framework. Current version is junit 4.

To perform unit testing, we need to create test cases. The unit test case is a code which ensures that the program logic works as expected.

The org.junit package contains many interfaces and classes for junit testing such as Assert, Test, Before, After etc.


Types of unit testing

There are two ways to perform unit testing: 1) manual testing 2) automated testing.

1) Manual Testing

If you execute the test cases manually without any tool support, it is known as manual testing. It is time consuming and less reliable.

2) Automated Testing

If you execute the test cases by tool support, it is known as automated testing. It is fast and more reliable.


Annotations for Junit testing

The Junit 4.x framework is annotation based, so let’s see the annotations that can be used while writing the test cases.

@Test annotation specifies that method is the test method.

@Test(timeout=1000) annotation specifies that method will be failed if it takes longer than 1000 milliseconds (1 second).

@BeforeClass annotation specifies that method will be invoked only once, before starting all the tests.

@Before annotation specifies that method will be invoked before each test.

@After annotation specifies that method will be invoked after each test.

@AfterClass annotation specifies that method will be invoked only once, after finishing all the tests.


Assert class

The org.junit.Assert class provides methods to assert the program logic.

Methods of Assert class

The common methods of Assert class are as follows:

  1. void assertEquals(boolean expected,boolean actual): checks that two primitives/objects are equal. It is overloaded.
  2. void assertTrue(boolean condition): checks that a condition is true.
  3. void assertFalse(boolean condition): checks that a condition is false.
  4. void assertNull(Object obj): checks that object is null.
  5. void assertNotNull(Object obj): checks that object is not null.

Required jar files

You need to load junit4.jar and hamcrest-core.jar files.

download the junit jar files


Simple JUnit example in eclipse IDE

Let’s see the directory structure of this example.

directory structure of junit example in eclipse

Write the program logic

Let’s write the logic to find the maximum number for an array.

  1. package com.javatpoint.logic;  
  2. public class Calculation {  
  3.   
  4.     public static int findMax(int arr[]){  
  5.         int max=0;  
  6.         for(int i=1;i<arr.length;i++){  
  7.             if(max<arr[i])  
  8.                 max=arr[i];  
  9.         }  
  10.         return max;  
  11.     }  
  12. }  


Write the test case

Here, we are using JUnit 4, so there is no need to inherit TestCase class. The main testing code is written in the testFindMax() method. But we can also perform some task before and after each test, as you can see in the given program.

  1. package com.javatpoint.testcase;  
  2.   
  3. import static org.junit.Assert.*;  
  4. import com.javatpoint.logic.*;  
  5. import org.junit.Test;  
  6.   
  7. public class TestLogic {  
  8.   
  9.     @Test  
  10.     public void testFindMax(){  
  11.         assertEquals(4,Calculation.findMax(new int[]{1,3,4,2}));  
  12.         assertEquals(-1,Calculation.findMax(new int[]{-12,-1,-3,-4,-2}));  
  13.     }  
  14. }  

To run this example, right click on TestLogic class -> Run As -> 1Junit Test.

Output:Assertion Error

Let’s see the output displayed in eclipse IDE.

junit example in eclipse with output

As you can see, when we pass the negative values, it throws AssertionError because second time findMax() method returns 0 instead of -1. It means our program logic is incorrect.


Correct program logic

As you can see, program logic to find the maximum number for the given array is not correct because it doesn’t return -1 in case of negative values. The correct program logic is given below:

  1. package com.javatpoint.logic;  
  2. public class Calculation {  
  3.   
  4.     public static int findMax(int arr[]){  
  5.         int max=arr[0];//arr[0] instead of 0  
  6.         for(int i=1;i<arr.length;i++){  
  7.             if(max<arr[i])  
  8.                 max=arr[i];  
  9.         }  
  10.         return max;  
  11.     }  
  12. }  

If you run the junit program again, you will see the following output.

example of junit framework with output


Another example of Junit framework

Write the program code

  1. package com.javatpoint.logic;  
  2. public class Calculation {  
  3.     //method that returns maximum number  
  4.     public static int findMax(int arr[]){  
  5.         int max=0;  
  6.         for(int i=1;i<arr.length;i++){  
  7.             if(max<arr[i])  
  8.                 max=arr[i];  
  9.         }  
  10.         return max;  
  11.     }  
  12.     //method that returns cube of the given number  
  13.     public static int cube(int n){  
  14.         return n*n*n;  
  15.     }  
  16.     //method that returns reverse words   
  17.     public static String reverseWord(String str){  
  18.   
  19.         StringBuilder result=new StringBuilder();  
  20.         StringTokenizer tokenizer=new StringTokenizer(str,” “);  
  21.   
  22.         while(tokenizer.hasMoreTokens()){  
  23.         StringBuilder sb=new StringBuilder();  
  24.         sb.append(tokenizer.nextToken());  
  25.         sb.reverse();  
  26.   
  27.         result.append(sb);  
  28.         result.append(” “);  
  29.         }  
  30.         return result.toString();  
  31.     }  
  32. }  

Write the test case

  1. package com.javatpoint.testcase;  
  2.   
  3. import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;  
  4. import org.junit.After;  
  5. import org.junit.AfterClass;  
  6. import org.junit.Before;  
  7. import org.junit.BeforeClass;  
  8. import org.junit.Test;  
  9. import com.javatpoint.logic.Calculation;  
  10.   
  11. public class TestCase2 {  
  12.   
  13.     @BeforeClass  
  14.     public static void setUpBeforeClass() throws Exception {  
  15.         System.out.println(“before class”);  
  16.     }  
  17.     @Before  
  18.     public void setUp() throws Exception {  
  19.         System.out.println(“before”);  
  20.     }  
  21.   
  22.     @Test  
  23.     public void testFindMax(){  
  24.         System.out.println(“test case find max”);  
  25.         assertEquals(4,Calculation.findMax(new int[]{1,3,4,2}));  
  26.         assertEquals(-2,Calculation.findMax(new int[]{-12,-3,-4,-2}));  
  27.     }  
  28.     @Test  
  29.     public void testCube(){  
  30.         System.out.println(“test case cube”);  
  31.         assertEquals(27,Calculation.cube(3));  
  32.     }  
  33.     @Test  
  34.     public void testReverseWord(){  
  35.         System.out.println(“test case reverse word”);  
  36.         assertEquals(“ym eman si nahk”,Calculation.reverseWord(“my name is khan”);  
  37.     }  
  38.     @After  
  39.     public void tearDown() throws Exception {  
  40.         System.out.println(“after”);  
  41.     }  
  42.   
  43.     @AfterClass  
  44.     public static void tearDownAfterClass() throws Exception {  
  45.         System.out.println(“after class”);  
  46.     }  
  47.   
  48. }  

Output:before class before test case find max after before test case cube after before test case reverse word after after class

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