Artificial Intelligence – Overview

for the reason that invention of computers or machines, their capability to carry out numerous responsibilities went on developing exponentially. people have developed the energy of pc systems in terms in their diverse running domain names, their increasing speed, and lowering length with admire to time.

a branch of laptop technological know-how named artificial intelligence pursues growing the computer systems or machines as wise as human beings.

what’s synthetic intelligence?
in keeping with the daddy of artificial intelligence, john mccarthy, it’s far “the science and engineering of creating shrewd machines, in particular shrewd computer applications”.

artificial intelligence is a manner of creating a computer, a laptop-controlled robot, or a software program assume intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.

ai is done by analyzing how human mind thinks, and how people research, decide, and work whilst looking to remedy a hassle, after which the usage of the results of this study as a foundation of growing clever software and structures.

philosophy of ai
at the same time as exploiting the electricity of the laptop systems, the interest of human, lead him to marvel, “can a gadget think and behave like people do?”

accordingly, the improvement of ai started out with the purpose of making similar intelligence in machines that we discover and regard excessive in human beings.

goals of ai
to create expert structures − the structures which showcase intelligent conduct, analyze, display, provide an explanation for, and recommendation its customers.

to enforce human intelligence in machines − growing structures that understand, think, analyze, and behave like human beings.

what contributes to ai?
artificial intelligence is a technology and generation based on disciplines along with laptop science, biology, psychology, linguistics, arithmetic, and engineering. a prime thrust of ai is inside the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, which include reasoning, mastering, and hassle solving.

out of the following regions, one or a couple of areas can make a contribution to construct an smart machine.

programming with out and with ai
the programming without and with ai is extraordinary in following approaches −

Programming Without AIProgramming With AI
A computer program without AI can answer the specific questions it is meant to solve.A computer program with AI can answer the generic questions it is meant to solve.
Modification in the program leads to change in its structure.AI programs can absorb new modifications by putting highly independent pieces of information together. Hence you can modify even a minute piece of information of program without affecting its structure.
Modification is not quick and easy. It may lead to affecting the program adversely.Quick and Easy program modification.

What is AI Technique?

In the real world, the knowledge has some unwelcomed properties −

  • Its volume is huge, next to unimaginable.
  • It is not well-organized or well-formatted.
  • It keeps changing constantly.

AI Technique is a manner to organize and use the knowledge efficiently in such a way that −

  • It should be perceivable by the people who provide it.
  • It should be easily modifiable to correct errors.
  • It should be useful in many situations though it is incomplete or inaccurate.

AI techniques elevate the speed of execution of the complex program it is equipped with.

 

Applications of AI

AI has been dominant in various fields such as −

  • Gaming − AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
  • Natural Language Processing − It is possible to interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.
  • Expert Systems − There are some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.
  • Vision Systems − These systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,
    • A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
    • Doctors use clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
    • Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.
  • Speech Recognition − Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc.
  • Handwriting Recognition − The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.
  • Intelligent Robots − Robots are able to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. In addition, they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adapt to the new environment.

History of AI

Here is the history of AI during 20th century −

YearMilestone / Innovation
1923Karel Čapek play named “Rossum’s Universal Robots” (RUR) opens in London, first use of the word “robot” in English.
1943Foundations for neural networks laid.
1945Isaac Asimov, a Columbia University alumni, coined the term Robotics.
1950Alan Turing introduced Turing Test for evaluation of intelligence and published Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Claude Shannon published Detailed Analysis of Chess Playing as a search.
1956John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence. Demonstration of the first running AI program at Carnegie Mellon University.
1958John McCarthy invents LISP programming language for AI.
1964Danny Bobrow’s dissertation at MIT showed that computers can understand natural language well enough to solve algebra word problems correctly.
1965Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT built ELIZA, an interactive problem that carries on a dialogue in English.
1969Scientists at Stanford Research Institute Developed Shakey, a robot, equipped with locomotion, perception, and problem solving.
1973The Assembly Robotics group at Edinburgh University built Freddy, the Famous Scottish Robot, capable of using vision to locate and assemble models.
1979The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, Stanford Cart, was built.
1985Harold Cohen created and demonstrated the drawing program, Aaron.
1990Major advances in all areas of AI −

  • Significant demonstrations in machine learning
  • Case-based reasoning
  • Multi-agent planning
  • Scheduling
  • Data mining, Web Crawler
  • natural language understanding and translation
  • Vision, Virtual Reality
  • Games
1997The Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
2000Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT displays Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites.

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